Now it came to pass, when Adonizedec king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them.
This is the first time the word ‘king’ is found in Scripture in connection with Jerusalem, but it is used 86 times otherwise, with other cities, before this.
Once in the New Testament Melchizedek is called king of Salem, which was the ancient name of Jerusalem [Heb. 7:1-3; Gen. 14:18; Ps. 76:2]
The word ‘Adonizedec’ means ‘Lord of righteousness’ which is the same meaning as ‘king of righteousness’, used of Melchizedek.
These were the official names of the kings of Jerusalem.
Here is the first time Jerusalem is mentioned in Scripture. It means ‘city of peace’, or ‘foundation of peace’.
It is one of the ironies of history that the city with such a name has seen so little peace and that for its possession rivers of blood have been shed.
It was originally also called ‘Jebus’ [Judg. 19:10-11; 1 Chr. 4:5; 2 Sam. 5:6-9].
This was the old name of ‘Jerus’.
It is called ‘Jebusi’ [Judg. 18:16, 28];
‘Ariel’ [Isa. 29:1];
The ‘city of righteousness’ [Isa. 1:26];
And ‘holy city’ [Isa. 48:2; Isa. 52:1; Neh. 11:1].
David captured the city from the Jebusites and made it the capital of untied Israel [2 Sam. 5:6-9]. It remained the capital until the division of the kingdom about 1,000 B.C.
Jerusalem then continued to be the capital of Judah until 616 B.C. when it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar.
It became the capital of Israel again about 546 B.C. and remained so until the nation and city were destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.
Jerusalem has undergone no less than 28 sieges from Joshua’s time to our day. 10 Sieges being from Joshua to Nebuchadnezzar [Judg. 1:8; 2 Sam. 5:6-10; 1 Ki. 14:25; 2 Ki. 18:13-19: 37; 2 Chr. 21:16-17; 28:5-15; 36:1-2].
In the period between the close of the O.T. to 70 A.D. It was besieged 10 times.
Since then it has been besieged 8 times to 1917 A.D., 9 times if we consider the recent war between the Jews and Arabs.
Jerusalem has a future as the capital of Israel and of the Anti-christ [Ezek. 37; Dan. 9:27-11: 40-45; 2 Th. 2:3-4; Rev. 11:1-11], and as the eternal capital in the reign of Jesus Christ [Isa. 2; Ezek. 48; Joel 3; Amos 9:9-15; Oba. 15-21; Mic. 4; Zech. 14].
– Dake Annotated Reference Bible: page 248